Country Dance & Contra Dance Formations
The names for a dance session vary by country, community and time period. You may know it as any of:
Around 1650, as documented in the Lovelace Manuscript and in John Playford's The English Dancing Master there were all these formations for a dance:
- Country Dancing
- Contra Dance
- Square Dance in many different styles
- English Country Dancing
- Folk Dance
- Traditional Dance
- Barn Dance
- Jane Austen style dance
- Community Dance
- Social Dance
- Village Dance
Many more have been added since.
- Two Couples
- Three Couples Longways
- Three Couples in a Circle
- Three Couples in an Offset Line (the middle couple in front of the others)
- Four Couples Longways
- Longways for 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 Couples
- Longways for as Many as Will
- Square (Circle of Four Couples)
- Circle for as Many as Will
- Single Line of Four Couples
Some groups choose to dance a subset of the available dances, but, even so, why do so many evenings consist entirely, or almost entirely, of just "Longways for as Many as Will" dances?
Yes, the longways formation has a number of significant benefits:
- It is an excellent use of the available space.
- It can handle any number of couples.
- Tired couples, on reaching the top or bottom of the set, can drop out without affecting anyone else.
- If longways is all you do then the dancers become familiar with the idiosyncrasies and concepts of that formation and you may be able to teach the next dance more quickly and with more chance of success.
But is that enough reason to ignore so many other wonderful dances?
Choreographers, next time you are writing a new dance why not try a different formation? Can you come up with a new formation?
Callers, why not explore the full breadth of country/contra dancing and produce a more varied programme?
Yes, I know it is not easy. Many dancers (who may never have experienced such variety) may be reluctant to try something new. For example, once, when I was calling at an English Country Dance session in America, I said, "The next dance is a square dance." Immediately a number of the dancers sat down and refused to join a set. We were limited in numbers so I had to cajole them to get up and join in so that we could do the dance. The dance was Don & Diane Bell's beautiful waltz-time dance, My Cape Breton Home. It just happens to be in a square formation. The dancers all loved it! I went on to explain that squares were part of English country dancing and had been since at least the early 17th century, including old favourites such as Newcastle. Playford even called some of them "Square Dances"!
So, dancers, keep an open mind; don't be afraid to try something new! You might like it!
Here are all the formations that I know. Please let me know if you know any others.
I have included sample dances in all the formations. Where I can't find the notation on the Web I have included it below. I have not been able to contact all the choreographers. My apologies if you would rather your choreography were not listed here; please contact
if you would like it removed or updated. Thank you.
know of any other formations, or dances in unusual formations that you feel should be added below.
This is a common "formation" in Morris Dancing which is very closely related to country dancing (same figures, same stepping, but performance dance rather than social dance). There are countless examples of the Solo Morris Jig.
In country dancing this formation makes little sense since country dancing is social dancing and you need at least one more person with whom you can be sociable!
The closest example I can give is the Accretion Reel by Chris Page in which, for 12 of the 64 steps, you get to dance solo.
This includes couple dances such as the waltz, the polka and the hambo, which are often performed at country dances.
There are also specifically choreographed dances such as the Salty Dog Rag. Though this originated as a variation on a ballroom dance, it became popular at country dances and ceilidhs on both sides of the Atlantic in the middle to late 20th century. You can see it being danced in two very different styles, and with lots of improvisations, here and here.
Three Dancers in a Line
Lark Trio by Alan Winston.
Three Kings by Keith Wood.
Three Dancers in a Circle
Tricylic by John Sweeney.
Two Couples in a Single Line
Dorset Four-Hand Reel (Community Dances Manual). There is an excellent example of part of the dance at 3:22 here.
Two Couples in Two Lines
There are many dances in this formation, going back to the 17th century. Variations include starting with both couples facing up and with the two couples facing each other.
Thanks to Mr. Playford by Loretta Holz.
Monica's Delight by Pat Shaw - video.
Five Dancers in a Quincunx
Domino Five by Derek Haynes.
Will-o'-the-Wisp by John Sweeney.
Five Dancers in a Diamond with One in the Middle
Polka Dot by Colin Andrews.
Crossroads by Keith Wood.
Five Dancers in Offset Lines
The Lesser Weevil by Alan Winston.
Five Weevils by Bill Baritompa - video.
Five Dancers in a Line
Quintilinear by John Sweeney.
Five Dancers in a Circle
Jack Turn Back (Hot Tub Rag) by Steve Schnur.
Three Couples in a Single Line
Cornish Six-Hand Reel.
Three Couples in Two Lines
One Couple Improper
Two Couples Improper
This is a very popular formation. There were dances in this formation in the first edition of Playford and countless others devised since. Many of them are derived from 18th and 19th century Triple Minor dances by re-choreographing the ending to make them suitable for three couples.
The Black Nag published by John Playford.
Fandango (adapted from a Triple Minor).
Ted's Triplets #1 - #41! By Ted Sannella (I like #3) in Zesty Contras and other publications.
Two Trios (One Man with Two Ladies)
An English Air by Pat Shaw.
Three Couples in a Circle/Triangle
Jenny Pluck Pears.
The Lover's Waltz by John & Karen Sweeney.
The Crested Hen from Thy.
Indian River Strathspey by George Senyk.
Three Couples in a Circle - Partner Opposite
Pony Express by Chris Sackett.
Gingerbread by Brooke Friendly & Chris Sackett.
Three Couples in Tempest Formation
Whitby Town by Elaine Beckingham - this is very similar to Indian River Strathspey, but with a slightly different formation to represent the piers at Whitby!
One Couple Short by Keith Wood.
Three Couples in an Oval
The Odd Trio by Jack Brown.
Three Couples in a Triangle
The Sussex Martlets by Wendy Crouch
(plus a visual aid from Maureen!).
Three Couples in Offset Lines
Jack Pudding in the Lovelace Manuscript.
Seven Dancers in Offset Lines
The Weevil by Richard Mason, also here.
Seven Dancers In Two Lines with One Dancer at the Top
The Millennium Bug by Erik Hoffman.
The Moon & Seven Stars by Jim McKinney.
Seven Dancers in a Square, but Singleton Heads and a Kingpin in the Middle
Six Plus One by ?.
Seven Dancers in a Circle
Septenary by Keith Wood.
Seven Dancers in an "H"
H7 Variation by Bill Baritompa - video.
Four Couples in a Square (Round for Four Couples)
This is the most common formation for four couples and goes back to at least the 17th century. An early example is Hyde Park (Hide Parke). This is described in Playford as "A square Dance for eight thus"
"Faine I would", in the same edition of Playford, has the ladies on the left of the men. Was this an early formation before the positioning was standardised, or just a printing error?
Four Couples in Two Lines
Any combination of Improper Couples (but usually two of the couples)
Nonesuch is an early example There are many variants as the original wording is somewhat obscure!
Modern examples include:
Terpsicourante by Gary Roodman, with its lovely Serpentine Hey.
The Amazed Geneticist by Pat Shaw, if you want more of a challenge try,
Tumbling Tom's Tonic by Les Ord has an unusual gender setup - video.
Four Couples in a Single Line
Dargason is described as "For as many as will" but usually danced today with four couples. This is an extremely unusual formation as most dancers are nowhere near their partner, being arranged:
Man 4, Man 3, Man 2, Man 1, Lady 1, Lady 2, Lady 3, Lady 4.
Dargason 21 is a modern version with everyone starting at the same time.
Four Couples in a Horseshoe-Shaped Line
The Horse's Branle. This is a modern version of the 16th century Branle de la Montarde, set to the tune of the Branle des Chevaulx (Horse's Branle). The original was for an even number of men and women. But the modern version is choreographed for eight dancers.
Eight Dancers Like a Playing Card Eight
Eight of Hearts by Sibby (halfway down the page).
Four Couples in a Box
Wheels Within Wheels by Carmen Giunta.
Eight Dancers in an Oval
Reely Snakey Eighty by Sue Carter.
Four Couples In A "T"
T For Truro by Beryl Jukes.
Eight Dancers in a 3 x 3 Grid with One Corner Missing
BOGOF, AKA Buy One Get One Free by Brian Clark.
Buy Two Get One Free by Keith Wood.
Nine Dancers in a 3 x 3 Grid
Westward Ho! by Chris Turner - video.
New Parliament House Jig by John Colville.
Square with an Extra Dancer in the Middle
Nine-Pins. This is the English Ceilidh version; the dance goes back to at least 1869 and the caller can add virtually anything they like to the dance; the ninepin can innovate to make it even more fun. Ralph Page: "Don't be polite, be quick!".
Four Couples in Two Lines with One Dancer at the Bottom
Pride of Dingle (Pride of the Pingle) by Ken Alexander.
Three Lines of Three in a Triangle
John Raymond by Pat Shaw,
Nine Dancers Like a Playing Card Nine
The Curse of Scotland by Keith Wood.
Three Lines of Three Like the Spokes of a Wheel
Treis Tria by John Sweeney.
Five Couples in a Quincunx
Throw a Fiver #4 by Inga Morton (and Throw a Fiver #1 - #7).
Five Couples in a Circle/Pentagon
Anna Turns Five by Gary Roodman.
The CHOGM Pentrille by Norm Ellis.
Five Couples in a Star
Ascending Star of Abingworth by Wendy Crouch.
Five Couples in a Horseshoe
Levi Jackson Rag by Pat Shaw.
Rubigold by Keith Wood.
Five Couples in an "H"
Hibiscus Honey by Keith Wood.
Five Couples in a Square with One Couple in the Middle
Winter Solstice by Wendy Crouch. (Note: Wendy wrote the dance to be performed to any suitable tune.)
Fivepenny Bit by ?
Five Couples in an Omega
Omega by Wendy Crouch.
Five Couples in Two Lines
This ia a common format. Variations include:
One or more couples Improper
Boston Tea Party by Jean Butler. Felton Rag by Charles Bolton.
Four Men & Six Ladies in Two Lines (LMLML facing LMLML)
Country Dance by Pat Shaw.
Chancellor of the Exchequer by Wendy Crouch.
Re-eleven by Phil Preen.
Six Couples in Two Lines
Helicopters by Richard Mason
Trumpet Vine or Joe Brown's Hornpipe by Pat Shaw Anderson Ferry Reel by Eric Conrad
Four Trios (Man between Two Ladies) in a Square
Double Take by Beryl Jukes.
Twelve Reel by Pat Shaw.
Four Trios in a Square
Miss Bedlington's Fancy by Pat Shaw.
The Crondall Hundred by Fiona Birchall.
Six Couples in a Triangle - Two Couples in a Line on each side of the triangle
Square --- NOT! by Peter Stix.
Six Couples in a Rectangle - Two Couples in a line at each Heads position
Hexitation by Tom Hinds.
Modern Western Square Dance (MWSD) calls can be used in this formation as well. The calls that work are listed here.
Six Couples in a Rectangle - Two Couples in a line at each Sides position
Something Elsche by Ægle Hoekstra.
Six Couples in a Hexagon
Hexagon Dancing is Modern Western Square Dancing done in a hexagon.
The Cambridge Hexagon by Colin Hume.
Six Couples in a Circle
Southern Appalachian Thread the Needle.
Hexed by Keith Wood.
Six Couples in Three Lines of Four Dancers
Dorset Twelve-Hand Reel by the Jovial Beggars.
Six Couples in Two Parallel Three-Couple Sets
Jenny's Jigsaw by Ian Whitehead.
Double Top by Charles Bolton.
Sting in the Tail by Colin Hume.
Four Trios in a Rectangle
Sturt's Desert Pea by Keith Wood.
Six Couples in a Cross
Iona Cross by John W. Mitchell.
Halsway Ruby Square by Ray Goodswen.
Merifest Central Square by Kimberley Smith.
Has anyone got one?
Seven Couples in Two Lines, Proper
Severn Bore by ?
Six Couples in a Rectangle - Two Couples in a Line at each Sides position plus One Couple in the Middle
The Magnificent Seven by Bob Archer.
Mediocre Seven by Peter Foster.
Seven Couples in a Circle
Val's Heptagon by Chris Turner.
Has anyone got one?
Eight Couples in Two Lines, Proper
The Willow Tree by Hugh Rippon.
Double Square (Extra Couples Behind a Normal Square)
Little Agnes by Pat Shaw.
Double Grand Square (Normal Square plus Two Couples in the Middle and Four More Dancers in the Corners)
Double Grand Square by Martha Edwards/Seth Tepfer.
Double Quadrille (Two Couples on Each Side)
Rod's Quad #2 by Rod Linnell.
Tea for Two by Colin Hume.
Four Lines of Four Dancers
Dutch Crossing by Ernst van Brakel.
Escher's Staircase by Keith Wood.
FOR AS MANY AS WILL - LONGWAYS
Squares and "Longways For As Many As Will" are the two most popular formations. Squares had prominence in the 19th century as Quadrilles, and there were probably more people dancing Modern Western Squares (Club Squares) in the 1950 - 1970 period than any other formation. But Longways has been the most popular many times over the last 500 years, and is probably the most common today.
Common variations include:
Duple Minor Proper
Duple Minor First Couples Improper
Duple Minor Second Couples Improper (AKA Indecent!)
Duple Minor Becket
Triple Minor Proper
These formations are so common that I don't intend to provide examples of all of them here. You can find lots of them at The Caller's Box, Antony's Dance Database and Hugh Stewart's Index.
Duple Minor First Couples Improper
Contrary to popular belief this is not a modern concept. The first one I know of is Old Simon the King from 1679! "First man being on his wo. side".
Duple Minor Becket
The Rifleman and other dances like it were in this Couple-Facing-Couple formation long before Herbie Gaudreau wrote the Becket Reel (Criss Cross Reel) around 1958; I am told that this formation was known as Rifleman Formation in England in the early part of the 20th century.
Duple Minor Sawtooth/Diamond
Bases Loaded by Lydee Scudder, Tom Thoreau & Jim Saxe.
Diamonds for (N)EFFA by Keith Wood.
Duple & a Half Minor
Caught in the Nette by Keith Wood.
Other longways formations include:
Triad Minor (the Three Couples in the Minor Set are in a Triangle)
Alamo Triad by Bob Marr.
Triple Minor Tempest (the Three Couples in the Minor Set are in a Horseshoe)
Garbology by Erik Hoffman.
The Corkscrew Jig by Colin Andrews.
Triple Minor in Lines of Six
Triad and True by Jerome Grisanti.
Three Facing Three
Kaleidoscope by Colin Hume.
Double Chocolate by Jim Kitch.
Babylon (Second Version) by Pat Shaw.
Double Contra/Mescolanza/Four Facing Four
Apple Pie Quadrille by Ron Beeson.
Quick Spin by Carol Ormand.
Double Longways (Two Becket Sets)
K & E by Pat Shaw.
Major Hey by Erik Hoffman.
Triple Contra/Six Facing Six
Two Out Of Three Ain't Bad by Luke Donforth.
Tempest (Two Couples Facing Down in a Line, One Couple on each side Facing Across)
FOR AS MANY AS WILL - CIRCLES
The Dorset Ring Dance is an example where you keep your partner, but Circles are much more common as mixers so that you get to dance with everyone. Examples are:
More of a Mixer by Al Olsen is an example where you start in an Alamo Wave (men facing out, ladies facing in).
Dances where one gender is in an inner ring facing their partner in an outer ring and the action is mainly between the two rings:
Big Set - Allemande (Community Dances Manual).
Virginia Reel Circle Mixer #24 by John Sweeney.
Dances where the couples face anticlockwise and the action is mainly around the circle:
Multiple circles are often used when there are too many dancers to fit into a single circle, but the dancers are all still doing the same dance at the same time. This one is actually choreographed for
multiple circles and is a canon, so each circle is doing something different at any one time: Round for Lyttelton / Christchurch from
Bill Baritompa, who's not sure where he got the dance. The words are adaptable for any occasion.
Circle of Trios
The Russian Ballet (Community Dances Manual).
This is Couple Facing Couple in a big Circle. It has many of the same characteristics as Longways, but the lines are bent into a circle and there are no ends. Many dances can be done in both formats.
Quorndon Hill by Roger Watson.
Double Circle of Couples/Becket Circle
Becket Circle by Al Olsen (in Zesty Contras) is an example of a dance specifically choreographed in this formation. This is also one of the standard setups in Appalachian Big Set/Kentucky Running Set; from a single circle the caller says something like, "Odds to the Centre" and every second couple goes forward, turns to the right, and faces the next couple. An easy progression, after performing a set of figures with this couple, is that all couples slide left to meet a new couple.
Double Circle of Offset Couples
Pengwern Valley Galop (Carlam Nant Pengwern) or "Welsh Galop" by Pat Shaw.
The Dashing White Sergeant.
Three Meet/The Swedish Dance.
Rayleigh Reel by Pat Shaw.
Sicilian Tempest Triplets
The American Husband or Her Man by Pat Shaw.
Double Sicilian Circle
Danish Double Quadrille.
The Fireman's Dance - video.
Sicilian Five-Couple Sets
The Mozart by Dudley Laufman.
FOR AS MANY AS WILL - OTHER FORMATIONS
Square For As Many As Will
Circle with an Odd Number of Dancers
The Oddball in Charge by Don Veino.
Long Lines with an Odd Number of Dancers
On-the-Fly-Circles and On-the-Fly-Stars by Sue Robishaw.
Grid Squares and Progressive Squares
A grid of squares where the dancers, either as couples or individuals move to different squares and may or may not get back to their starting position at the end of the dance.
Can of Worms by Bob Isaacs.
More examples here.
Multiple parallel contra lines where the dancers move between lines. Here are some examples.
A square with contra lines radiating from the sides, with dances cleverly devised so that the same call can mean something specific to all dancers whether they are in the square or the lines. The dancers usually move up the line into the square, around the square, then down a different line. There can be multiple squares with contra lines between them as well as out from them.
Nooks and Crannies by Bob Isaacs.
Here are some more examples.
Couples promenade randomly to find another couple to dance with as a foursome. Appalachian Big Set/Kentucky Running Set is great for this. There are lots of examples if you use this search and scroll down to find anything marked Big Set or Appalachian.
While finding one other couple to make a circle of four is the most common, there are also dances where you find two or more couples to make bigger circles.
The Borrowdale Exchange by Derek Haynes is an example with three couple circles.
Some dances defy categorisation as they switch between formations. Four Couple Longways into Square is a common one. This one switches between one big circle and a Sicilian Circle: Hayden's Wheel by Ernest R. Jessup.
This is when you and your partner put your arms around each other and become a single dancer. You can see it being used as a break in this video.
Barrie Bullimore called one he called Double Trouble. I understand that Eric Hoffman got it from Sets In Order.
Wow! That's a lot more formations than when I started this project. Over 100 different formations, and that is not including all the ways that you can set up the genders and partners within the set!
If you have any more formations, or dances that you really think should be listed here because of something unique then please let
know. But this is a page of examples, not a database of all dances!
Comments, suggestions, corrections are all very welcome.
More examples at:
Scottish Country Dancing Dictionary
The Caller's Box
Antony's Dance Database
Hugh Stewart's Index
and lots more places!